Die kurze Geschichte des Syrien-Krieges

Seit acht Jahren tobt der Krieg in Syrien. Ein Krieg, der nach jüngsten Angaben etwa 560.000 Menschen getötet und mehr als elf Millionen vertrieben hat, die Hälfte davon ins Ausland und knapp eine halbe Million nach Deutschland.

Trotzdem sitzt Diktator Baschar al-Assad heute fester im Sattel als je zuvor, kontrolliert etwa 65 Prozent Syriens und hat auch mit den oppositionsnahen Mächten, vor allem der Türkei, Übereinkünfte getroffen, die seinen Machtanspruch festigen. Die Gründe dafür sind vielfältig.

Der friedliche Aufstand – Ab März 2011 sah sich Syriens Machthaber im Rahmen der Unruhen des „Arabischen Frühlings“ Massendemonstrationen in nahezu allen Landesteilen gegenüber. Bis zu 500.000 Menschen an einem einzigen Tag gingen mit dem Slogan „Das Volk will den Sturz des Regimes“ auf die Straße. Ziele der Protestierenden war die Absetzung des Diktators, der sein Amt im Jahr 2000 von seinem Vater übernommen hatte, sowie die Einleitung demokratischer Reformen in Syrien.eayywe-preview

Widerstand formiert sich – Assad reagierte mit brutaler Gewalt. Binnen weniger Monate wurden mehr als 5.000 Demonstranten getötet. Nächtliche Razzien brachten Zehntausende weitere in Assads Foltergefängnisse, aus denen es nur wenige wieder herausschafften. Doch der Diktator hatte den Bogen überspannt. Große Teile seiner Armee verweigerten ihm aufgrund der Brutalität gegen sein eigenes Volk die Treue und schlossen sich zur „Freien Syrischen Armee“ zusammen. Diese sollte die Demonstranten schützen und Syrien vom Joch Assads befreien. Bereits nach wenigen Monaten schickten mehrere Golfstaaten sowie einige europäische Länder Waffen, damit die „FSA“ eine Chance gegen Assads Militär bekomme.

Islamisten als Rettung – Dieser reagierte mit einem bis dahin einzigartigen Schritt. Ab Mitte 2011 entließ Assad die extremsten Islamisten aus seinen Gefängnissen, damit diese die bis dato moderaten Rebellen infiltrieren und Blutbäder unter Assad-treuen Bürgern anrichten sollten. Zwischen 1500 und 2000 Dschihadisten wurden dafür freigelassen. Die Propaganda des Regimes, man kämpfe gegen islamistische Terroristen, wurde vom Regime selbst in die Tat umgesetzt und verfehlte sein Wirkung nicht.

Im Januar 2012, fast ein Jahr nach Beginn der Unruhen, gründete sich der syrische Ableger von Al-Qaida, namens Jabhat al-Nusra. Islamisten aus der ganzen Welt strömen nach Syrien, um sich den Terroristen anzuschließen.  Gut ein Jahr später kommt es  zum Bruch innerhalb der Terrorgruppen und der „Islamischer Staat“ gründet sich als globales Alternativprojekt zu Jabhat al-Nusra.

Assad vor dem Aus – Mitte 2013, zwei Jahre nach Beginn des Krieges, hatte das syrische Regime die Kontrolle über etwa 80 Prozent der Fläche Syriens verloren. Dies werden nun von – noch(!) überwiegend moderaten – sunnitische Rebellen und kurdische Aufständischen kontrolliert. Der Diktator reagiert, verstärkt seine Armee durch sektarische Milizen, setzt unermüdlich Fassbomben gegen sein Volk ein und nutzt bei Damaskus Nervengas. 1300 Menschen sterben.1146554_601050146613630_1321152257_n

Obwohl US-Präsident Obamas „rote Linie“ überschritten wird, kommt es zu keiner militärischen Reaktion des Westens. Der Startschuss für die Wende im Syrien-Krieg. Denn durch das Nichtstun der zivilisierten Welt fühlen sich Assads Unterstützer gestärkt, zunächst die vom Iran unterstützte Terrororganisation Hisbollah und der Iran selbst. Beide schicken, wie auch Russland, Waffen und Tausende Kämpfer, um den Diktator zu unterstützen.

Russland greift ein – Dennoch reicht diese Unterstützung nicht, um die Lage zu stabilisieren. Zwar gelingt es Assad und seinen Verbündeten die Stadt Homs zurückzuerobern. Im Osten Syriens verliert man jedoch immer mehr Gebiete an ISIS und im Mai 2015 schließlich die komplette Kontrolle über die Region Idlib in Nordwesten des Landes. Rebellen gelingt es, bis ans Mittelmeer vorzustoßen und die alawitischen Kerngebiete in den Provinzen Latakia und Tartus direkt zu bedrohen. Dies bringt das Fass für Assads Unterstützer Wladimir Putin zum Überlaufen, nicht zuletzt, weil Russland eine Marine-Basis in Tartus betreibt – seine einzige am Mittelmeer.

Am 30. September 2015 beginnt Russland seine Luftschlag-Kampagne an der Seite Assads. Bereits am ersten Tag zeichnet sich ab, was die kommenden Jahre bringen sollen. Denn Russlands Luftwaffe greift nicht etwa gezielt Islamisten an, sondern betreibt eine beispiellose Kampagne des verbrannten Erde. Schulen, Krankenhäuser, Wasseraufbereitungsanlagen, Getreidesilos und Wohngebiete werden systematisch dem Erdboden gleichgemacht. Bis 2018 sollen mehr als 7000 Zivilisten bei diesen Angriffen sterben.

Und Russlands Bomben zeigen Wirkung. Im Dezember 2016 gelingt Assads Armee, zusammen mit iranischen Milizen und russischer Luftunterstützung die Eroberung Aleppos. Erst danach wendet man sich erstmals ernsthaft ISIS zu. Ende 2017 beginnt man erfolgreiche Feldzüge in Hama und Idlib, 2018 wird unter extremer Gewalt (abermals über 2500 tote Zivilisten) Ost-Ghouta erobert und Mitte letzten Jahres fallen die Regionen Quneitra und Daraa komplett zurück an Assad.jeb6k9-preview

Die Rolle des Westens – Der Westen steht bei all dem nur an der Seitenlinie. Die Militärkampagne der USA, die seit Ende 2015 auch von Deutschland und anderen europäischen Staaten unterstützt wird, richtet sich ausschließlich gegen die Terrormiliz ISIS, was Assad zusätzliche Entlastung gibt. Selbst bei schlimmsten Menschenrechtsverletzungen durch das syrische Regime und Russlands Luftwaffe belassen es die deutschen Außenminister bei Beleidsbekundungen und allenfalls zahnlosen Verurteilungen.Screen Shot 2019-03-15 at 16.17.51

Auch von Russland propagandistisch unterstützte neue Giftgasangriffe Assads 2017 und 2018 führen nicht zu Sanktionen gegen Moskau. Immerhin: US-Präsident Donald Trump lässt jedes Mal eine Nacht lang Militäreinrichtungen Assads als Bestrafung bombardieren. Militärisch ändert das nichts. Schlimmer noch: Im Dezember 2018 verkündet Trump den Rückzug der US-Truppen aus Syrien binnen weniger Monate – das Ende der kurdischen Autonomie im Land. Eine Entscheidung, die vor allem von jenen kritisiert wird, die jahrelang für eine „diplomatische Lösung“ in Syrien eintraten und dabei zusahen, wie der Konflikt vor Ort militärisch entschieden wurde.

Die Türkei beschließt 2017 und 2018 eigene Militäraktionen im Norden des Landes. Diese richten sich zunächst gegen ISIS und später gegen die kurdische Miliz YPG, die als syrischer Ableger der PKK gilt. Europa verurteilt vor allem die zweite Offensive, nachdem man sechs Jahre lang die Bitten der Türkei ignoriert hat, gemeinsam „Sicherheitszonen“ im Norden Syriens zu gründen, um die 3,5 Millionen syrische Flüchtlinge aus der Türkei zurück nach Syrien zu führen.net3g2-preview

Assad – Sieger, aber politisch irrelevant – Auch politisch werden Europa, die USA und die Vereinten Nationen ausgehebelt beziehungsweise lassen sich widerstandslos aushebeln. Statt in Genf werden die Richtungsentscheidungen für Syrien seit Ende 2016, zuerst zaghaft, später mit aller Macht, im kasachischen Astana getroffen. Dort treffen sich die Führer der Türkei, des Irans und Russlands regelmäßig, um zu bestimmen, wie der Nachkriegskuchen in Syrien verteilt werden soll. Diktator Assad wird über die in Astana getroffenen Entscheidungen lediglich informiert. Der „Präsident“ Syriens hat den brutalsten Krieg des 21. Jahrhunderts nach acht Jahren Tod und Zerstörung nominell gewonnen. Praktisch genießt er jedoch lediglich Bleiberecht in eigenem Land und ist heute eine Marionette Moskaus und Teherans, die die eigentlichen Sieger in Syrien sind.

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Exclusive: Ukraine’s war realities, unprettified

During my last trip to Kyiv, Dnipro and Donbas, I’ve been in several closed-door meetings with military staff and international strategists. The following text lists some of my observations and things I was told about realities of the war in Ukraine.

All information was provided under Chatham House Rules, so it is much more straight forward than what you would hear or read from official briefings and politicians’ statements. For the same reason, I won’t name any source, naturally.

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The Ukrainian Army leadership in Donbas

 

Russian forces and support

Right now, Ukraine faces some 36.300 separatists (most of them Ukrainians) at the front. While 2016 saw around 9.000 Russian troops in eastern Ukraine, this number declined to 3.000. “The problem is that they left their equipment all behind. High tech equipment.” Military academies and (Ukrainian) separatist army training bases work “highly efficient”, some still under Russian army command with many trainers being Russian-trained Ukrainians by now. They are now training “the 3rd generation” of fighters, meaning Russian-trained Ukrainians educate new Ukrainians. Separatist troops are trained on traditional weapons as well as state of the art Russian Army electronic warfare equipment, the invaders left-behind. This results in a well-trained enemy army.

However, over the past months, Russians have reduced logistic and military support in Donetsk and Luhansk. The DNR/LNR military and political leaderships are panicking about this and consider having their own offensive operations against Ukraine, fearing Russia might look for “diplomatic solutions” in which they might cease to exist.

Right now, separatist/Russian forces of the first and second army corps have 478 operational tanks, 848 APCs and 732 artillery pieces inside Ukraine. Approximately the same amount of equipment is located directly on the Russian side of the occupied territories and can be deployed to the territories within less than one day (with Russian soldiers operating most of the weapons systems).

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A look into the Ukrainian HQ bunker in Donbas

Technology gap

“Russia is a master of jamming. They don’t need weapons to drown our drones. They jam them”, one officer said. He was asked, who used drones and jamming to counter enemy aerial vehicles. His answer: “Both sides, but they are definitely better than us.”

What the Ukrainian army needs at the front – and hopes to receive from the US –  is “night vision equipment, jamming systems, radio intelligence tools and secure communication systems, especially to operate UAVs”.

One quite bold argument why drones must be equipped with night vision and laser targeting equipment was, that Ukraine wants to see where it returns fire. “70% of their artillery and mortar positions are located in close proximity to civilian structures in urban areas. Most of the shelling occurs at night. If we return fire, we would like to see what we hit. This would reduce the risk of hitting civilians.” The officer said that Ukraine must strike back if the pro-Russian fire in violation of Minsk threatens the lives of their forces. They do this almost daily, “endangering our own civilians” (in the occupied areas). They want to change the situation, but need more foreign support to do so.

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An Ukrainian National Guard “Kozak” armoured vehicle

Separatist war tactics

Some examples of how separatists fight, break the ceasefire and trick the OSCE SMM were given. Around Horlivka, separatist positions sometimes shell each other. “They call them and say, take cover. Then they fire with small arms and both positions ‘return’ fire on us.” Sometimes, separatists fire on their own, sometimes they seem to seek permission from their Russian officers, which are positioned several kilometres behind the front. “This morning, we intercepted their communication. They yelled at their HQ that they were under fire, lying to their officers. We did not fire any shot. Now we wait what the response might be.”

Also, separatists occasionally use entrenched BMP-1 some km from the front as “ballistic weapons”, using their main gun to shell the Ukrainian front “like mortars”. This tactic is used to avoid being spotted by OSCE monitors. It also only very seldomly causes damage or casualties.

Also, the army calls the war tactics of the separatists a “hybrid war”, meaning “propaganda today is the major part in it”. On one day, separatists opened fire 35 times and Ukraine returned fire 8 times. The enemy tenfolded the figure and sent it to the JCCC and the OSCE. “Suddenly we attacked 80 times … “

IMG_1546_cenBriefing at the 128th Separate Mountain Infantry Brigade’s HQ in Toretsk

Europe keeps Ukraine’s army small

The European Union, also Germany, deny Ukraine the military support they want, because the EU wants the Ukrainian army “to punch below its fighting weight”. It knows Putin is the aggressor but also has no full trust in Ukraine’s commitment to the Minsk agreement. It fears, nationalist forces could win the upper hand via democratic elections or within the military structure and launch a surprise offensive to regain what belongs to Ukraine in the east.

Some figures within the Ukrainian political and military sphere see this as the only chance as Minsk does not seem to return any square meter to its rightful owner. At the same time, the Ukrainian army feels – and is – much stronger than in 2014 and could throw its weight into the battle to see if it can recapture entire Donbas. However no one thinks that Poroshenko would order such an attack as another defeat would mean the end of his political career. To make sure, nobody in the Ukrainian leadership does, the EU wants Ukraine to remain under-equipped to a certain degree. Also it is afraid that IF Ukraine’s army became a proper opponent to what Russia can send it at any moment, the conflict could spiral out of control.

The Ukrainian army position on the diplomatic initiative is: “Russia suffers under the sanctions, keeping them in place is the only way to eventually solve the conflict due to negotiations”. Some experts think that this implies, lifting the sanctions against Russia could make the Ukrainian government and army turn to “Plan B” as mentioned above.

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An Ukrainian trooper stands guard near our convoy

Minsk line and the grey zone

Asked about OSCE observations that the Ukrainian army sometimes advances into the grey area, officers made it clear that they regard the – signed also by Russia! – September 19, 2014 contact line as the real one, according to Minsk. This means the army sees advances into the grey zone “to supply our citizens in it” and possibly take new positions as its full right.

The grey zone, meaning points behind what Ukraine holds now but what it regards as on its side of the September 19, 2014 contact lin,e reaches “between 200 meters and 7 kilometres” into not-held territory, sometimes held by separatists, sometimes held by nobody. Thus, it includes “hundreds of settlements” which Ukraine regards as under its protection according to the first Minsk agreement. The army denies that entering these areas violates Minsk and left open, whether it could install permanent positions inside this area. For now, only temporary advances are on the agenda.

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Map of Donetsk in the Ukrainian Army HQ in Donbas

Economic downturn risks

While Ukrainian politicians are not really afraid of the country’s recession getting out of control, some foreign experts, living in Kyiv, paint a worst-case scenario. The Euro-Hryvnia exchange rate fell from 1:10 in December 2010 to 1:31 in September 2017. If the Hryvnia fell to between 1:50 or even 1:100, experts fear there could be a mass exodus of Ukrainians to the EU. “You have 5 million people, trying to get into Poland, if that happens”, one expert told me. More millions would try to reach other parts of the EU, traveling via Belarus and Poland to the Baltic states or Romania towards Spain. “Do you want to shoot these people? ‘Cause this is the only way you could stop them in such a stuation”, the expert asked

Russian-speaking people could turn to Russia, fleeing to it or even rise up in the eastern and southern regions, trying to make those areas part of Russia. By the way: All experts agree that Russia is not better off economically, just more successfully creating that image with its propaganda, also received among many “neutral” Ukrainians.

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Visit to a steel factory in Dnipro Oblast

Because of all this, economic experts assume that Ukraine is “too big to fail” and must be economically secured at any price. So the fight against the economic downturn is closely connected to the fight against Russia’s hybrid war on the country and the fight against corruption.

Speaking of corruption: One airborne unit commander gave Mr. Rasmussen a “message” to Poroshenko: “Please remind the president of 2014 and the Maidan: If we lose the war against corruption, we not just lose the war in the east, but also all of our state.”

A dream comes true – I will be a professional journalist with @BILD_News from May.

Dear Twitter follower and/or blog reader,

since 3 years and 5 months, I provide you with BreakingNews, Analysis and Opinion from conflict hot spots around the world, focusing mainly on Syria on Ukraine, but also the wider Middle East as well as Eastern Europe and the CCCP successor republics. As there will be some major changes in my appearance – not my stance or focus – soon, I think you deserve to know more about it and wrote the following explaining article.

Since December 2011, I do my “job” on Twitter with all passion and enthusiasm, spending 4-12 hours a day on it. Thanks to these efforts, more than 25.000 people follow me there, millions read my tweets and 160.000 people read the articles, I posted on this blog over the last 5 months. All in all, this really felt like a “job”, but it was none. Instead, I did all of it on a voluntary basis and had a regular job during the whole time, mostly unrelated to the topics,I post and write about here. Hence, more than once my “real life job” and my Twitter activities got in each other’s way, both consuming my time, focus and energy.

This will change soon. From May 2015, I’ll be multimedia editor for the news section of the online edition of Germany’s largest newspaper Bild, namely www.bild.de. In this position, I’ll be able to make my – passionately and almost-professionally operated – hobby my new full-time employment, combining the fascinating online news platform possibilities, Bild.de offers, with my personal and learned skills.

As you can imagine, I didn’t make the decision to – partly – give up my independence without reflecting on the situation. But, to be honest, it didn’t take me long to compare bild.de’s approach of news-making and opinion-shaping as well as its political stance with my personal one (the one, you know from 54.000+ tweets, I posted). Bild.de’s pro-liberal-democratic / pro-Western / pro-bitter truth / anti-(semi)dictatorial regimes approach is literally 100% congruent to my personal conviction.

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Therefore, it was quite an easy choice to join bild.de’s news team. This will give me the possibility to make a difference by professionalizing my way of open-source-based revealing journalism and I sincerely hope and foresee my input will be an asset for bild.de too.

What does this mean for my Twitter account and Blog?

Well, a lot will change, but I’ll stay the same. During the talks with my future superiors, we agreed that using Twitter and my account for communicating and as a source for developing news stories, was, is and will be an integral part of my “method” and thus will also play an important role in the future as long as it does not interfere with my other work. So yes, I’ll be able to further focus on the conflicts I chose and post BreakingNews, Analysis and Opinion on them. Beside that, I’ll probably also have a look at other topics and I’m thinking about tweeting a bit more in German as this is my language. 😉 The Twitter account will of course ONLY reflect my personal opinion. Furthermore, beside my personal findings, I will probably be able to post interesting stuff from my news coverage at bild.de as well.

I also plan to continue my blog / homepage www.conflictreport.info , writing on conflicts and aspects, I am interested in. This will stay my personal blog with only one editor and story writer – me. Of course, I’ll only work on it in my spare time – so exactly like I did until now.

Last but not least, I plan to tweet and write under my real name in the near future, adding to my integrity and credibility as a journalist. I know that this might be connected to a certain amount of troubles as I haven’t only made friends during the last years by speaking out loud for justice and the truth as I see it. However, I know that many thousands of journalists interpret what they see and hear in controversial ways (to some) but stand by their opinion and publicly-announced perspective despite all odds. I always said, that if I ever become professional in what I do, I’ll follow suit. So be it.

So yes. Basically, the title says it all. A dream comes true for me and I want to thank bild.de and especially the man who recognized my abilities and decided to give me the chance.

As for you, dear blog reader and Twitter follower, I sincerely hope, you will remain faithful to my news service on Twitter and here despite my soon beginning alignment with a powerful, but not less controversial, media organization. 😉 I am convinced, this new job and orientation will be of mutual benefit for me, you and my new employer. 🙂

Best regards and looking forward to the future

Conflict Reporter